The iconic Krugerrand has kept the same design since inception in 1967, and every new instalment bears the current year. The Krugerrand numismatic proof range is comprised of one, half, quarter and tenth ounce coins.
The year 2016 marks the 50th year since the striking of the first Krugerrand (although the coin only became available in 2017). The proof Krugerrand range is available in limited quantities as a set of individual coins.
The reverse of all four coins features a prancing springbok and the current year, with the word “Krugerrand” above the animal and the gold content below.
The obverse of the coins bear a bust of South Africa’s president, Paul Kruger, at the time that the original Krugerrand was first introduced.
Protea Series2016: Nelson Mandela and the theme of Justice
The South African Mint honours The life of a legend: Nelson Mandela on its Protea coin series. Introduced in 2013, a different chapter of Mr Mandela’s life is portrayed annually (his childhood in 2013, his education years in 2014 and his arrival and early years in Johannesburg in 2015). In 2016, the series focuses on Nelson Mandela as a young attorney and the concept of justice.
The Freedom Charter, adopted at the Congress of the People held in Kliptown on 26 June 1955, was a statement of core principles which called for democracy and human rights, land reform, labour rights, nationalisation and a non-racial South Africa. Many of the demands listed in the Freedom Charter were included in the 1996 Constitution of South Africa. The year 2016 also marks the 20th anniversary of the approval of the Constitution.
Nelson Mandela achieved his goal of becoming an independent practising attorney when, in August 1952, he and Oliver Tambo became business partners and opened Mandela & Tambo Attorneys in Chancellor House. This was the first African law firm in South Africa and represented clients from all over the country. It was during this time that Mr Mandela became increasingly active within the African National Congress (ANC), fighting segregationist and discriminatory laws.
The 2016 pure-gold R25 (1 oz) Protea coin features Nelson Mandela as a young attorney in these offices and a quotation from his 1962 address to the Old Synagogue Court in Pretoria on charges of inciting workers to strike and leave the country illegally: “I was made, by the law, a criminal, not because of what I had done, but because of what I stood for, because of what I thought, because of my conscience.” Also featured are the words ‘Mandela & Tambo Attorneys’, the denomination ‘R25’ and the metal value ‘1 oz Au 999.9’.
The pure-gold R5 (1/10 oz) Protea coin symbolises the theme of justice with a scale in the background and a quote from Mr Mandela from the address to the Old Synagogue Court in 1962: “To be free is not merely to cast off one’s chains, but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others.” Also featured are the denomination ‘R5’ and the metal value ‘1/10 oz Au 999.9’.
The sterling-silver R1 Protea coin depicts an African Lady Justice holding a balanced scale together with the seven fundamental values of the Constitution of South Africa and the denomination ‘R1’.
On the common obverse, Nelson Mandela is featured wearing a trademark Madiba shirt, surrounded by South Africa’s national flower, the King Protea, as well as the words ‘South Africa’ and ‘2016’.
R200 (24ctGold-1oz), R100 (24ctGold-1/2oz), R50 (24ctGold-1/4oz) and The R2 (1 oz) sterling-silver
The South African Mint introduced a new coin series in 2016 consisting of four 24-carat gold coins, namely a R200 (1 oz), R100 (1/2 oz), R50 (1/4 oz) and R20 (1/10 oz), and a sterling-silver R2 (1 oz) crown. Africa’s big cats are celebrated on this coin series issued in collaboration with the ‘National Geographic Big Cats Initiative’.
This project endeavours to support on-the-ground conservation and education projects combined with global public awareness campaigns to counteract the big cat population’s rapid decline due to habitat loss and degradation as well as conflict with humans.
The word ‘cheetah’ is derived from the Hindi word ‘chita’ meaning ‘spotted one’ and is the first cat to be portrayed in this series. The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is the fastest land animal, able to reach speeds of up to 120 km/h. These predators rely primarily on sight to hunt.
The R200 (1 oz)
fine-gold coin portrays the characteristics of this unique predator by featuring a growling cheetah and a cheetah captured in mid-stride. The line pattern and stylised human features reminiscent of woodcut prints, together with the denomination ‘R200’, metal ‘Ag 999.9’ and weight ‘1 oz’ complete the design.
Cheetahs have been associated with royalty and elegance, therefore a portrait of this regal predator is the main focus on the R100 coin.
The line pattern and stylised human features reminiscent of woodcut prints, together with the denomination ‘R100’, metal ‘Au 999.9’ and weight ‘1/2 oz’ complete the design.
The ‘R50’ denomination, metal ‘Au 999.9’ and weight ‘1/4 oz’ complete the gold coin offering. The obverse of the R50 features the national coat of arms, the words ‘South Africa’ and the year ‘2016’.
The 1/10 oz therefore portrays two adolescent cheetahs grooming each other. The line pattern and stylised human features reminiscent of woodcut prints, together with the denomination ‘R20’, metal ‘Au 999.9’ and weight ‘1/10 oz’ complete the design. The obverse features the national coat of arms, the words ‘South Africa’ and the year ‘2016’.
The gold coins share a common obverse design, which depicts the national coat of arms, the words ‘South Africa’ and the year ‘2016’.
The R2 (1 oz) sterling-silver coin portrays the characteristics of a cheetah by featuring a growling cheetah and a cheetah captured in mid-stride. The line pattern and stylised human features reminiscent of woodcut prints, together with the denomination ‘R2’, metal ‘Ag 925 Cu 75’ and weight ‘1 oz’ complete the design.
The obverse of the silver coin features the national coat of arms, ‘South Africa’ written in all 11 official languages and the year ‘2016’.
The R1 (1/10oz) pure gold coin was re-introduced in 1997 as a commemorative coin. The theme ‘South African Reptiles’ began in 2015 and featured the Nile crocodile. The Cape dwarf chameleon is depicted on the 2016 coin.
The Cape dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion pumilum, represents the lizards within the reptile series. Endemic to the southern part of the Western Cape, it is one of 15 described dwarf chameleons in the country. This small, viviparous lizard has come under intense pressure as its habitat has been transformed into urban areas and monoculture plantations.
On the R1 coin the chameleon is shown basking in the sun, while its eyes move independently from one another searching for prey and predators. The denomination of R1 and the metal value of 1/10oz Au 999.9 together with its name are also featured.
A new theme in the Natura coin series, ‘Nocturnal hunters’, was introduced in 2014. The first predator to feature on the coins was the leopard, followed by the black-backed jackal in 2015. The year 2016 sees the final addition to this theme: the spotted (or laughing) hyena (Crocuta crocuta).
The hyena has an extensive vocal range: whoops, fast whoops, grunts, groans, lows, giggles, yells, growls, soft grunt-laughs, whines and soft squeals. Its loud ‘who-oop’ call and its unusual laughter are one of the most recognisable sounds of the African bush at night. The pitch of the laugh indicates the hyena’s age, while variations in the frequency of notes convey information about its social rank.
The reverse of each of the four pure-gold coins depicts a different aspect of the hyena’s behaviour.
The R100 (1 oz) coin features a lone adult hyena, the word ‘Natura’ and the denomination ‘R100’, with the metal value ‘1 oz Au 999.9’. Hyenas can run at speeds of up to 60km/h and have good hearing and sharp eyesight at night. The female is larger than the male and dominates the pack. There is a very strong hierarchy, especially when they are feeding.
The R50 (1/2 oz) coin depicts a pack of hyenas out on a hunt. The spotted hyena hunts in small packs, seeking out weaker members in a herd of antelope. Once the prey has been selected, the pack separates it from the herd and chases it down over long distances. Also shown are the word ‘Natura’, the denomination ‘R50’ and the metal value ‘1/2 oz Au 999.9’.
The R20 (1/4 oz) coin portrays a pair of feeding hyenas. Although primarily a hunter, the hyena also scavenges. The word ‘Natura’ and the denomination ‘R20’, together with the metal value of the coin (‘1/4 oz Au 999.9’), complete the design of the coin.
The R10 (1/10 oz) coin illustrates a female hyena with her cub, together with the word ‘Natura’, the denomination ‘R10’ and the metal value ‘1/10 oz Au 999.9’. The average litter consists of two cubs, born after a gestation period of around 110 days. Cubs are born with soft brownish-black hair and develop the lighter-coloured spotted coat of adults after two to three months. The milk of the spotted hyena has the highest protein content of any terrestrial carnivore and a fat content second only to that of the polar bear and sea otter.
The common obverse features a ‘laughing’ spotted hyena and the words ‘South Africa’ and ‘2016’. The moon, which represents the nocturnal habits of this carnivore, is repeated on each coin, visually linking the four coins.
50c (2oz), 20c (1oz), 10c (1/2oz) and 5c (1/4oz) sterling-silver
South Africa’s holistic approach to conservation includes a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) to conserve the country’s offshore biodiversity and ensure the sustainable use of its marine resources.
This theme was introduced in 2013, featuring the Delagoa bioregion, followed by MPAs in the Natal and Agulhas bioregions in 2014 and 2015 respectively. 2016 sees the celebration of the South-Western Cape bioregion, through depictions of various marine life.
The coins are available individually and as a set.
50c (2oz): The eight-tentacle master of camouflage, the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), is featured on the coin. These territorial cephalopods make their home in crevices among the rocky formations of shallow coastal waters. Here they prey on crabs, rock lobsters, and shellfish.
20c (1oz): On the coin a great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) propels itself out of the water. Their curiosity and intelligence, complex social interactions, and sophisticated predatory behaviour have inspired concentrated research, resulting in greater understanding. Consequently, more focused conservation efforts have been implemented in South African coastal waters to protect this once maligned marine hunter.
10c (1/2oz): The coin features the endangered African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) sitting on its nest. Protected after centuries of persecution, mainly from guano scraping and egg collecting, it was hoped that their numbers would increase. But recent studies show a rapid population decline, probably as a result of commercial fisheries competing for sardines and anchovies which form the bulk of the penguins’ diet. It is thought that protecting the feeding grounds around the breeding colonies should sustain the penguins while minimising the impact on the fishing industry.
5c (1/4oz): The West Coast rock lobster (Jasus lalandii), contributes about R200 million to the South African economy every year. Rock lobsters cannot be bred in captivity due to their long and complex life cycle. After 80 days, tiny transparent spider-like larvae hatch from the eggs; these moult and become phyllosoma larvae with long hairy legs which drift on the ocean currents for over seven months. They moult 11 times; the final stage is a 20mm colourless lobster that swims inshore and finds refuge under a rock or a crevice where it continues to grow to maturity.
The year on the obverse changes to 2016.
R2 Crown & Tickey
2016 | R2 CROWN & TICKEY – SOUTH AFRICAN INVENTIONS: The Dolos
The R2 Crown and Tickey were first introduced in 1997, and in 2016 a new theme entitled South African Inventions was adapted.
The first invention to be featured in this new theme is the dolos, an engineering innovation developed in East London in 1963 to protect harbour walls and dissipate the energy of breaking waves. The dolos’ design ensures that these concrete boulders form an interlocking yet porous wall.
The reverse of the R2 crown depicts people on a harbour wall protected by a number of dolosse. Its obverse features the coat of arms of South Africa, the year ‘2016’ and the words ‘South Africa’ in all the official languages. The reverse of the 2-½ cent tickey shows a single dolos with the denomination ‘2-½ c’ while the obverse features the words ‘South Africa’ with the year ‘2016’ and -a Protea.
A dolos can weigh up to 20 tons, thus they are placed in position and on top of each other by cranes, and over time, tend to get further entangled as they are shifted by the waves of the ocean. Roughly 10 000 dolosse are required to preserve a kilometre of coastline and so they are found in their millions along coastlines worldwide.
These un-reinforced concrete shapes are manufactured by pouring concrete into a steel mould. The concrete is sometimes mixed with steel fibres to strengthen the dolosse in the absence of reinforcing. Construction of the dolosse takes place as close as possible to the area where they will be placed due to their great mass and difficulty in moving them. They are often numbered so that their movement can be monitored over time and so that engineers can gauge if more dolosse need to be added to the pile.
Eric Mowbray Merrifield, East London Harbour Engineer from 1961 to 1976, is credited with the invention of the dolos, but in the late 1990s Aubrey Kruger, Merrifield’s young draughtsman at the time, claimed that he and Merrifield considered the shape of the concrete blocks together to be used in the protection of East London’s extensive breakwaters following damage done by a major storm in 1963.
Although Merrifield died in 1982 and Kruger’s claim cannot be settled either way, the focus in celebrating this engineering feat is not on the inventor, but on the origins of the invention- South Africa. The dolos has changed the face of coastlines around the world.
Greater consciousness of how we interact with nature has developed in the past half-century. UNESCO (the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) launched the Man and the Biosphere Programme in 1971 ‘to promote interdisciplinary approaches to management, research and education in ecosystem conservation and sustainable use of natural resources’. South Africa participates in this international initiative. Hence UNESCO’s logo is featured as a mint mark on the reverse of each coin
The Biosphere Reserve coin series was launched in 2015 and portrayed the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve that year. The Cape West Coast Biosphere Reserve (CWCBR), designated in 2000, is featured in 2016. This set consists of two R2 (1/4 oz) gold coins and two R2 (1 oz) sterling-silver crowns.
The common obverse design on all four coins shows a map of South Africa indicating the location of the biosphere reserve and also as an enlarged map. The design also features the words ‘South Africa’ and ‘2016’, together with a compass.
The reverse of the first R2 (1/4 oz) gold coin represents the northern core area of the biosphere reserve, which consists of the Berg River Estuary and the West Coast National Park (WCNP). The WCNP and the Saldanha Bay islands are international ‘important bird areas’ and a Ramsar site. As such, the great white pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus) as well as the greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus), both water birds, are depicted on this coin. The WCNP is also known for its fynbos, which transforms the landscape into a beautiful floral tapestry during the summer months. The Elands Sourfig (Carpobrotus acinaciformis) and the Chinkerinchee (Ornithogalum thyrsoides), also depicted on the coin, represent the rich flora of the area.
The reverse of the second R2 (1/4 oz) gold coin represents the southern core area of the biosphere reserve, which consists of Dassen Island, the Riverlands Nature Reserve and the Witzand Aquifer. The black harrier (Circus maurus), the Cape fox (Vulpes chame) and the beautiful wine cup (Geissorhiza radians) represent the fauna and flora of this part of the CWCBR. The aquifer, which provides 40 percent of Cape Town’s water, is represented by a water droplet pattern.
The reverse of the first R2 (1 oz) sterling-silver crown features the West Coast Fossil Park, an area of historical and cultural value which lies within the buffer area of the biosphere reserve. It contains remarkably well-preserved faunal fossil remains dating from the terminal Miocene to the early Pliocene epochs, about 5,2 million years ago. Featured on the coin are the African bear (Agriotherium africanum) and one of the three African elephant fossils (Anancus capensis). Also represented are the hunting hyenas, the short-necked giraffe and the sand grouse. The palm trees are indicative of the plant life and climate that existed in the Miocene–Pliocene period.
The reverse of the second R2 (1 oz) sterling-silver crown depicts the agricultural and tourism industries within the biosphere reserve. The fishing industry is an important source of income for the people of the West Coast. Small fishing boats and a fisherman drawing in his net are portrayed on the coin. The wheat, cattle and sheep pattern represent the Swartland grain cultivation and the livestock and dairy production; and the grapes and flowers allude to the viticulture, with specific reference to biodiversity and the Wine Initiative.
The UNESCO Man and the Biosphere programme has changed the way we interact with nature. In celebration of the rich diversity of the Kogelberg Biosphere, the South African Mint has, for the first time, launched a new colour coin range to showcase its staggering beauty. The range contains four coins; two R5 sterling-silver 1 oz coins depicting the flora and two R10 sterling-silver 1 oz coins depicting the bird life of the UNESCO Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve.
The first R5 colour flower coin features a beautiful flowering blue-bearded disa, while the other flower coin depicts the striking Hermanus cliff gladiolus, situated in its natural habitat of rocky sandstone outcrops and cliffs.
The first R10 colour bird coin features the vibrant orange-breasted sunbird displaying its colourful plumage of bright metallic blue, violet, olive green, orange and yellow. The second coin features a male Cape rock-jumper with its dark rufous-red breast and belly.
The common obverse features a map of South Africa, the location of the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve, the words ‘South Africa’ and the year ‘2016’.
Bring your collection to life with one of the world’s most beautiful and diverse floral and bird kingdoms, now in stunning full colour.